2-wheel PRT: Cost calculation inputs and references

Case study regions

The cost estimation was carried out using the same case study regions as published in the final report of the research project "SynArea" about a rural vehicle sharing system, facilitating estimations about regional traffic intensity. The drafted 2-wheel PRT route networks are following the density of rental stations within the "SynArea" project, providing a maximum linear distance to the next rental station of 200 m for about 75% of the population and 300 m for about 90% of the population.

Suburban region: Wiener Becken (northern part)Rural Region: Mittelburgenland
  • 84.000 inhabitants
  • 700 km2
  • 369 km proposed 2-wheel PRT network length
  • 32% of the route network within built-up areas
  • 37 grade free crossings (2-wheel PRT junctions)
  • 109 grade free crossings (2-wheel PRT / conventional road)
  • 37 wildlife crossings
  • 33.000 inhabitants
  • 650 km2
  • 261 km proposed 2-wheel PRT network length
  • 28% of the route network within built-up areas
  • 32 grade free crossings (2-wheel PRT junctions)
  • 44 grade free crossings (2-wheel PRT / conventional road)
  • 20 wildlife crossings
Map basis: Austrian Map

Market share of 2-wheel PRT

Assumptions:
  • optimistic: 50%
  • standard: 33%
  • pessimistic: 25%

Average traffic volume per cross-section

The market share mentioned above was applied to the total transportation performance of the case study regions, calculated backwards from partial transportation performance and modal share values as published in the final report of the research project "SynArea". In the suburban region these values were reduced by the following estimation of non-regional traffic:
  • Traffic between Vienna Airport and the city: 9 km within the region, airport traffic figures excluding transfer passengers according to Wikipedia
  • Long-distance traffic on the A4 motorway: 28 km within the region, assumed occupancy 1,25 Pax/car, traffic volume at the Austrian/Hungarian border according to ASFINAG, assumed share of cross-border regional traffic 20%
  • Long-distance train traffic on the Vienna-Budapest railway line: 29 km within the region, 24 trains per day according to ÖBB, assumed number of passengers per train: 300 at a seating capacity of 409 according to Wikipedia

These calculations led to the following average traffic volume per cross-section of the 2-wheel PRT network (sum of both directions in passengers per year):

suburban regionrural region
optimistic2.100.000 1.100000
standard 1.400.000710.000
pessimistic 1.000.000540.000

Route infrastructure costs

Land price (out of town)

Assumptions:
suburban regionrural region
optimistic4 EUR/m21,5 EUR/m2
standard8 EUR/m22 EUR/m2
pessimistic14 EUR/m23 EUR/m2

Reference:

The width of the land strip to be purchased for route construction was estimated as follows:

  • optimistic: 3 m
  • standard: 4 m
  • pessimistic: 5 m

Pavement construction

The costs for the construction of the pavement including the shoulder were estimated according to bike lane construction costs:
  • optimistic: 100 EUR/m
  • standard: 150 EUR/m
  • pessimistic: 225 EUR/m

References:

Furthermore, for sections within built-up areas, it was assumed, that the following share of the route length can be established on existing paved surfaces:

  • optimistic: 30%
  • standard: 15%
  • pessimistic: 0%

Earth movement

In order to guarantee a safe and smooth movement of the 2-wheel PRT vehicles, out ot town some earth movements will be necessary in order to achieve an appropriate vertical route alignment.

Volume assumptions:

  • optimistic: 2 m route width at 60° repose angle and 0,25 m height adjustment = 0,55 m² average cross section of dams or cuts
  • standard: 2,5 m route width at 45° repose angle and 0,5 m height adjustment = 1,43 m² average cross section of dams or cuts
  • pessimistic: 3 m route width at 30° repose angle and 1 m height adjustment = 3,5 m² average cross section of dams or cuts

Cost assumptions:

  • optimistic: 10 EUR/m3
  • standard: 18 EUR/m3
  • pessimistic: 30 EUR/m3

References:

Grade-free crossings (Over-/Underpasses)

Assumptions:
2-wheel PRT / conventional road2-wheel PRT junctionwildlife crossing
optimistic 45000 EUR 15000 EUR 15000 EUR
standard 60000 EUR 25000 EUR 25000 EUR
pessimistic 75000 EUR 40000 EUR 40000 EUR

References:

Fences and protected level crossings

Depending on the achievable safety and reliability of the vehicle's sensor technology, it might be necessary to protect vehicles and pedestrians (in town) as well as animals (out of town) by fences and level crossings similar to those used for tram lines.

Assumptions:

  • optimistic: No fences or level crossings needed
  • standard:
    • Fences out-of-town: 30 EUR/m (sum of both sides)
    • Fences in town: 60 EUR/m (sum of both sides)
    • Level crossing price: 50.000 EUR
    • Level crossing spacing: 400 m
  • pessimistic:
    • Fences out-of-town: 60 EUR/m (sum of both sides)
    • Fences in town: 80 EUR/m (sum of both sides)
    • Level crossing price: 70.000 EUR
    • Level crossing spacing: 250 m

References:

RFID transponders and radar reflectors

In order to reduce requirements for on-bord sensor technology, the 2-wheel PRT routes could be equipped with RFID-Tags as rather rough navigation marks as well as radar reflectors marking the kerb.

Assumptions:

  • optimistic:
    • RFID price: 5 EUR
    • RFID spacing: 1000 m
    • Radar reflector price: 2 EUR
    • Radar reflector spacing: 20 m
  • standard:
    • RFID price: 10 EUR
    • RFID spacing: 500 m
    • Radar reflector price: 5 EUR
    • Radar reflector spacing: 10 m
  • pessimistic:
    • RFID price: 15 EUR
    • RFID spacing: 200 m
    • Radar reflector price: 10 EUR
    • Radar reflector spacing: 5 m

References:

Infrastructure annuities calculation

  • optimistic:
    • Lifetime: 30 years
    • Interest rate: 2%
  • standard:
    • Lifetime: 25 years
    • Interest rate: 3%
  • pessimistic:
    • Lifetime: 20 years
    • Interest rate: 4%

Vehicle costs

Vehicle amortization

The costs for the procurement of a vehicle was estimated in close correlation to the light electric vehicles proposed in the SynArea project, as weight and energy figures are very similar to the proposed 2-wheel PRT vehicle: The SynArea vehicle is more spacious and four-wheeled, but it is designed for lower speed. Additionally, costs for sensors and other technology necessary for autonomous operation on segregated infrastructure were estimated (Reference 1, Reference 2).

  • optimistic:
    • Vehicle price: 11.000 EUR
    • Lifetime: 10 years
    • Interest rate: 2%
  • standard:
    • Vehicle price: 13.000 EUR
    • Lifetime: 8 years
    • Interest rate: 3%
  • pessimistic:
    • Vehicle price: 16.000 EUR
    • Lifetime: 6 years
    • Interest rate: 4%

Vehicle operation

Similarly to the vehicle procurement costs, the estimation of the vehicle operation costs was following the SynArea project, mentioning maintenance costs of 0,027 EUR / km and energy costs of 0,008 EUR / km. Another report mentioned similar values for electric cars.

Assumptions:

  • optimistic: 0,025 EUR/km
  • standard: 0,035 EUR/km
  • pessimistic: 0,045 EUR/km

Amortization and operation costs of rental stations

The estimation of the costs for rental stations followed the SynArea project as well.

Assumptions (per space for one vehicle):

  • optimistic:
    • Construction costs: 3000 EUR
    • Lifetime: 20 years
    • Interest rate: 2%
    • Maintenance: 100 EUR/year
  • standard:
    • Construction costs: 5000 EUR
    • Lifetime: 15 years
    • Interest rate: 3%
    • Maintenance: 150 EUR/year
  • pessimistic:
    • Construction costs: 7000 EUR
    • Lifetime: 10 years
    • Interest rate: 4%
    • Maintenance: 200 EUR/year

Capacity utilization

Assumptions:
  • optimistic:
    • 5 hours riding time of the average vehicle per day (excluding empty redistribution)
    • 70 km/h average speed
    • Factor for redistribution mileage (total mileage per occupied mileage): 1,25
    • Factor for rental station reserve (number of rental station slots per number of vehicles): 1,25
  • optimistic:
    • 4 hours riding time of the average vehicle per day (excluding empty redistribution)
    • 65 km/h average speed
    • Factor for redistribution mileage (total mileage per occupied mileage): 1,5
    • Factor for rental station reserve (number of rental station slots per number of vehicles): 1,5
  • optimistic:
    • 2,5 hours riding time of the average vehicle per day (excluding empty redistribution)
    • 55 km/h average speed
    • Factor for redistribution mileage (total mileage per occupied mileage): 1,75
    • Factor for rental station reserve (number of rental station slots per number of vehicles): 1,75

Other assumptions

Unforeseen costs

  • optimistic: 10% of all other costs
  • standard: 20% of all other costs
  • pessimistic: 30% of all other costs

Instead of separate cost estimations for the standard vehicle and the enlarged vehicle, it was assumed that higher costs for the enlarged vehicle would be compensated by higher occupation.

Comparison with conventional means of transport

  • Variable costs and total costs of conventional compact cars were taken from the SynArea report as the average between upper and lower values, assuming a yearly mileage of 10.000 to 15.000 km. The assumed occupation rate is 1,25 passengers per car.
  • Average public transport costs split up in ticket revenues and subsidies were taken from the final report of the RegInnoMobil project.